Time Event Location
10:00 am – 5:00 pm Registration Open CC — Hall D Foyer
10:00 am – 5:00 pm Exhibitor Move-In CC — Hall D
Time Event Location
6:30 am – 2:00 pm AWT Golf Tournament
Shuttle departs at 6:30 am from the hotel lobby.
Tournament play begins at 8:00 am.

The golf tournament will be held at Maderas Golf Club, Zagat Survey's top-rated golf course in San Diego County for seven consecutive years. The course offers beauty and challenge as it winds through the cliffs, rock outcroppings, creeks, and forests of the inland hill country of north San Diego. This Johnny Miller and Robert Muir Graves designed course takes the concept of upscale golf to exhilarating levels. You won't want to miss the chance to play at this incredible location.

Maderas Golf Course
17750 Old Coach Road
Poway, California 92064
8:00 am – 7:00 pm Registration Open CC — Hall D Foyer
8:00 am – 2:00 pm Exhibitor Move-In CC — Hall D
9:30 am – 1:00 pm Carlsbad Desalination Plant Tour

9:30 am – Attendees arrive in lobby
9:45 am – Buses depart hotel
10:30 am – Security check in
11:00 am – Tours
12:30 pm – Buses depart for hotel
1:00 pm – Return to hotel
AWT has coordinated with the Claude "Bud" Lewis Carlsbad Desalination Plant to offer convention attendees a special tour on Wednesday, September 7, at 11:00 am. You will have the opportunity to observe the state-of-the-art process of turning salt water from the Pacific Ocean into high-quality drinking water for nearly a half a million San Diegans.
2:30 pm – 4:00 pm Technical Subcommittee Meetings
Boiler Subcommittee: 31C
Cooling Subcommittee: 31B
Pretreatment Subcommittee: 31A
Special Projects Subcommittee: 30E
Wastewater Subcommittee: 30D
CC — 31A–C, 30DE
2:30 pm – 4:00 pm Wastewater Recovery & Reuse Workshop
Peter S. Cartwright P.E.
Cartwright Consulting Co.
Although the total quantity of water on this planet has remained relatively constant for millions of years, the increasing population continues to degrade the quality of our water and impact the availability of water of acceptable quality for certain uses. One of the key approaches to obtaining water of sufficient quality is employing wastewater recovery and reuse: collecting wastewater from one application, treating it, and reusing it. Rainwater, graywater, seawater, and industrial and municipal wastewater all represent sources for reuse. This workshop identifies sources of wastewater supplies and describes appropriate treatment strategies required to meet the quality requirements for specific applications. Technologies are detailed as well as system design, installation, and operation. Several case histories are described. The workshop also addresses such applications as the treatment of municipal sewage to generate potable water (“Direct Potable Reuse”).
CC — 32AB
4:00 pm – 4:30 pm Moderator Training
Moderators and AWT board members required to attend.
CC — Room 32AB
4:00 pm – 7:00 pm Opening Reception — Exhibit Hall Open
(Complimentary Reception)
CC — Hall D
6:30 pm – 7:30 pm Women of Water (WOW) Reception
Guest Speaker: TBD
Join the Women of Water (WOW) for a casual networking reception. This is your opportunity to speak with others in the industry.
Omni — Gallery 1
7:00 pm – 8:00 pm CWT and New Member Reception
(By Invitation Only)
Two celebrations in one! AWT will be hosting a reception recognizing the significant accomplishments of those who have achieved the status of Certified Water Technologist (CWT) and welcoming our new AWT members.
Omni — Palm Terrace
Time Event Location
7:00 am – 7:00 pm Registration Open CC — Hall D Foyer
7:00 am – 8:30 am Continental Breakfast CC — Center Terrace Foyer
7:00 am – 8:30 am Spouse/Guest Continental Breakfast
Welcome to San Diego Overview
CC — Center Terrace Foyer
7:30 am – 7:50 am Commercial Corner #1 — AkzoNobel Surface Chemistry
Versatile Polymers for scale control
CC — Room 31C
7:30 am – 7:50 am Commercial Corner #2 — Peabody Engineering and Supply, Inc.
Innovators for Environmentally Safer Chemical Containment
CC — Room 31B
8:00 am – 8:20 am Commercial Corner #3 — Qualichem
Benefits of Fluorescence Tracing of Cooling Tower
CC — Room 31C
8:00 am – 8:20 am Commercial Corner #4 — Mycometer
Bactiquant Water – a Rapid Onsite Screening Tool for Assessing Legionella Risk and Water System Hygiene
CC — Room 31B
8:00 am – 8:20 am Commercial Corner #4 — Giving Back: Providing Sustainable Water Solutions
Carolyn Meub, Pure Water For the World
CC — Room 32AB
8:00 am – 5:00 pm Speaker Ready Room Open CC — Next to Room 20D
8:30 am – 9:00 am GENERAL SESSION
Annual Membership Meeting
  • Call to Order
  • President's Report
  • New Business
  • Q&A Period — Treasurer's Report
  • Q&A Period — Committee Reports
  • Q&A Period — Liaison Reports
  • Approval of Minutes from September 30, 2015
  • Adjournment
CC — Ballroom 20D
9:00 am – 10:00 am

KEYNOTE SESSION — Unrivaled Trust and the Tenets of Leadership: Lessons From the Modern Battlefield
George Severence
Retired Navy SEAL

Introduction, Keynote Sponsor:
Robert J. Ferguson
French Creek Software, Inc.

George Severence will present on "Unrivaled Trust and the Tenets of Leadership: Lessons From the Modern Battlefield." From his earliest days, George dreamed of becoming a Navy SEAL, and after graduating from Arizona State University, he enlisted in the Navy to pursue his goal, graduating with BUD/S Class 213 and beginning a journey that would take him to the front lines of the War on Terror. Since September 11, 2001, he has led special operations teams on four continents as a team leader, platoon commander, troop commander, task unit commander, operations officer, and executive officer, deploying seven times and working with people from 20 different countries. Over his 19 years in Naval Special Warfare, he has risen from an enlisted SEAL specializing in communications and intelligence, to a junior officer leading assault and sniper teams in Iraq and Afghanistan, to a platoon commander practicing counterinsurgency in the southern Philippines, to a commander of a Special Operations Task Unit in the most Iranian-influenced section of southern Iraq throughout the tumultuous drawdown of U.S. forces. George recently completed his executive officer tour at Special Boat Team 12 and will retire in June 2016 after 20 years of service.

CC — Ballroom 20D
10:00 am – 11:00 am

GENERAL SESSION — Legionnaires' Disease: 40 Years Later
Claressa Lucas, Ph.D.
Centers for Disease Control

In 1976 a new and deadly disease struck the American Legion convention in Philadelphia. Forty years later, this "Legionnaires' disease" continues to make headlines with large outbreaks, sickening thousands and killing hundreds. In this session, learn how public health authorities detect and respond to outbreaks, as well as best practices for prevention. The speaker will describe the lessons learned from outbreak investigations and how this knowledge has been used to craft recent recommendations and regulations. Case studies will be presented to demonstrate common deficiencies in water system management and the responses needed to prevent disease associated with building water systems.

CC — Ballroom 20D
11:00 am – 2:00 pm Exhibit Hall Open
(Complimentary Lunch)
CC – Hall D
11:00 am – 12:30 pm

Technical Learning Lounge Open

11:00 am - 11:45 am
Filtration Overview

11:45 am - 12:30 pm
Guidelines for Aluminum Coupons

CC — Room 32AB
12:30 pm – 2:00 pm Past Presidents' Luncheon Omni — McCormick & Schmick's Restaurant
2:00 pm – 4:00 pm Exhibit Hall Open
(By Appointment Only)
CC — Hall D
2:00 pm – 4:00 pm Track I
Location: CC — Ballroom 33

2:00 pm – 2:30 pm
Contract Language to Protect You
Donald L. Cleveland
WaterColor Management Ltd.
Doing business through written agreements is crucial for those in the water treatment and water handling business. The wording of such agreements is a key line of defense in mitigating liability exposure. This presentation will identify several areas of exposure for those whose core business is treating cooling towers or boilers, and will discuss how model contract language can address them. Now, with increased demands and more regulation related to the control and prevention of Legionnaires' disease, performance demands on water treaters will increase. While the fundamentals of treatment will remain the same, the tendency for finger pointing and passing on liability will be intensified. Careful written service agreements are vital, not only with customers, but also with other important entities on which water treaters rely, such as outside labs, mixers and blenders, chemical feed equipment and raw material suppliers, and equipment installers. This presentation will provide key contract language that can address such situations and protect water treaters from unintended liability. It will include model language that can be used as a starting point and adapted to the specific needs of individual businesses. It will also provide other guidance on mitigating such risks, including how to document contracted work and maintain accurate service records. Case examples will be provided to illustrate these points.

2:30 pm – 3:00 pm
Know What You Don't Know: Overlooked Risks and Challenges Facing All Business Owners
Michael Highum
Hugh McGowan
John Shircliff

McGowan Insurance Group
Business owners and operators must understand and apply a significant amount of information in today's changing business environment. This list is growing and includes such things as human resource matters and compliance, addressing liabilities related to the sponsoring of health and benefit plans, and establishing a strategy to manage the growing professional liabilities associated with the mounting standards and regulations. While the relevance and impact can vary greatly from one business to another, the importance of everyone having a working knowledge of these business risks is critically important. Moreover, developing and implementing certain strategies will offer peace of mind but also provide a road map to ensure the necessary plans are in place to mitigate any impact to the business and its employees. This presentation is designed to touch on these and other very pertinent risk factors facing AWT members. Our discipline-focused experts will offer a broad overview of some of the most pressing exposures to risk. The discussion will be very timely and offer some practical solutions or strategies for attendees to implement within their own organizations. Those attending will also be invited to ask questions, as the seminar will be an open roundtable type format. In addition to the above, other specific topics to be addressed will include Business Continuity, Cyber and Network Security, Management Liability, and an update on the Affordable Care Act and the continuing rollout of key provisions of the law.

3:00 pm – 3:30 pm
Business Resources for AWT Members
Mark R. Juhl
Jaytech, Inc.
As you know, AWT is well renowned for its technical expertise, but did you also know that AWT is fast becoming the go-to source for business information? AWT certainly recognizes the technical knowledge water treatment professionals must possess to do their job, but as small to medium-sized company owners and/or employees, your need for business resources is also very apparent to us. The Members Only Business page offers a wide variety of materials to help with situations or events that affect your day-to-day business operations; from business planning to hiring, company culture to owner transition, and many other topics — a wealth of information is available.

3:30 pm – 4:00 pm
The Internet of Things and Its Impact on the Water Treatment Industry
Michael Henk
U.S. Water Services, Inc.
In 2014, the number of connected devices to the Internet surpassed the number of humans in the world at 7.4 billion. Communications industry leaders estimate that some 30–50 billion devices will be connected to the "Internet of Things" by 2020. With the latest explosive growth in the communications world of connected devices, it is important that water treaters understand how the changes can impact their business. Water treaters have been leveraging communications technologies for decades to stay close to their customers and the systems they treat, so what needs to change? This presentation will discuss the strategies water treatment companies should consider for leveraging the changing communications landscape. A general overview of the communications industry as it applies to water treatment will be provided along with a review of the "Industrial Internet of Things."

Track II
Location: CC — Ballroom 20D

2:00 pm – 2:30 pm
Control of Deposition Risks in High-Silica Boiler Waters: A Novel Approach Using Purified Tannin Chemistry
Roger Gaudreault, Ph.D.
TGWT Clean Technologies Inc.

The use of water sources having a high silica concentration has proven to be a major challenge for the operation of steam boilers. Despite advances in conventional technologies, high silica boiler water (>150 mg/L) continues to have a major impact on the operation and efficiency of boilers, mainly due to silica-based deposit that reduces heat transfer. This paper will report the effect of colloidal silica concentration and pH on tannins stability, using photometric dispersion analyzer (PDA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Using engineered tannins, case studies are reported on the cleanliness and the removal of deposits for boilers with pressure lower than 300 psig, at silica levels well above any established industry guidelines. This work provides a new model on how to control the deposition risks in high-silica boiler waters for steam generators.

2:30 pm – 3:00 pm
Cooling Water Biofilms: Cause-and-Effect Problems, Conventional Treatments, and Practical Experience with a Natural Treatment
Colin Frayne, CWT
Aquassurance, Inc.
Effective control of cooling water biofilms requires vigilance from service providers, as cause-and-effect biofilm problems can quickly result in amplification of Legionella sp., MIC, asset damage, and occasional lawsuits; yet, most new construction specs are primarily focused on cost and often fail to anticipate the reality of downstream biofilm problems (as do some big city oversight consultants!). Available biofilm monitoring methods are limited, the equipment is often expensive, and use of simple bleach or alternative biocide at inadequate concentrations can easily make matters worse. This paper reviews problems commonly associated with cooling water biofilms, examines some traditional/nontraditional and novel potential solution options, and reports on recent European experience with a natural treatment solution that may have practical application in the United States.

3:00 pm – 3:30 pm
Successful "Green" Applications of Polyamine Emulsions in Industrial Water Systems
Peter E. Greenlimb, Ph.D., CWT
Chemagineering Corporation
Fabrice Chaussec
Odyssee Environment
In 2006, ODYSSEE Environnement was founded to develop and market innovative polyamine emulsion technologies for the prevention of corrosion, scale, and deposition in industrial steam boiler, closed recirculating cooling water, and open evaporative cooling tower systems. A broad range of product formulations was developed and successfully evaluated in field studies under typical industrial water treatment conditions. This paper summarizes ODYSSEE Environnement's experiences over the past nine years in developing and successfully applying ODYSSEE Environnement industrial water treatments as alternative, viable, and economically efficient water management approaches. Several documented case studies and program control procedures will be illustrated. Emphasis on the "Green Technology" of this unique water treatment approach, its improved heat transfer and energy efficiencies, and its simplicity in applying and monitoring polyamine emulsion water management programs will be discussed.

3:30 pm – 4:00 pm
Best Practices Application for Innovative Cooling Tower Makeup Water Alternatives
Peter G. Elliott
GE Water & Process Technologies
Demand for water across the United States and the world is ever increasing, while the supply of traditional high-quality municipally treated potable water has been keenly challenged in the face of increased population and larger industrial cooling and process water requirements. In recent years, many innovative concepts to help mitigate the increasing water usage rate have been introduced. This presentation will focus primarily on the evaluation and practical application of four major alternative source options for makeup water to open evaporative recirculating cooling systems (cooling towers/evaporative condensers). The four makeup water options to be evaluated are 1) Reverse Osmosis Permeate, 2) Sodium Zeolite Softened Water, 3) Municipally Treated Wastewater, and 4) High-Phosphate/Grey Water.
4:00 pm – 7:00 pm Exhibit Hall Open (Complimentary Reception) CC — Hall D
4:30 pm – 5:30 pm Learning Lounge Open

These sessions are designed to be an informal way for attendees to share their own experiences and ideas. Be sure to stop by!

4:30 pm – 5:00 pm
Electronic Field Service Reports
Facilitator: James McDonald, PE, CWT
Chem-Aqua, Inc.

The days of paper field service reports are long over. Electronic field service reports are now a client expectation. Programs are available on the market to fill this need. Some companies have custom built their own, while others still use rudimentary tools such as MS Excel and MS Word to generate their field service reports. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? What capabilities are out there? What are the challenges? This presentation will cover these questions.

5:00 pm – 5:30 pm
What Will I Learn From Attending the AWT Offered Training Courses
Facilitator: Mark T. Lewis, CWT
Southeastern Laboratories

Many business owners and managers are looking to train their employees and are not sure of where to send them. AWT offers Training Seminars that include Sales Training, LEED Training, Service Technician and Technical Training. This presentation will cover the outlines of these courses so that you can understand what one is to understand upon completing the courses.

CC — Room 32AB
5:15 pm – 6:15 pm Young Professionals Happy Hour

The AWT Young Professionals Group was created to provide a place for young professionals within the water treatment industry to learn, mingle, and grow. Join us for happy hour to meet with your peers in the industry.

Omni — Palm Terrace
Time Event Location
7:00 am – 9:00 am Continental Breakfast CC — Center Terrace Foyer
7:30 am – 8:45 am Committee Breakfast Meetings
Business Resources Committee: 31A
Certification Committee: 30E
Convention Committee: 30D
Education Committee: 30C
Legislative/Regulatory Committee: 30B
Marketing/Communications Committee: 30A
Membership Committee: 29D
Technical Committee: 29C
Standards Task Force: 29B
Young Professional Group: 29A
CC — Rooms 29A–D, 30A–E, 31A
7:00 am – 5:00 pm Registration Open CC — Hall D Foyer
7:00 am – 5:00 pm Speaker Ready Room Open CC — Next to Room 20D
8:00 am – 8:20 am Commercial Corner #4 — Giving Back: Providing Sustainable Water Solutions
Carolyn Meub, Pure Water For the World
CC — Room 32AB
8:00 am – 8:20 am Commercial Corner #6 —
Special Pathogens Laboratory
Win the Race to End Legionnaires' Disease
CC — Room 31B
8:30 am – 8:50 am Commercial Corner #7 — LuminUltra
Generating ROI for Industrial Applications utilizing 2nd Generation ATP® Monitoring
CC — Room 31C
8:30 am – 8:50 am Commercial Corner #8 — Rivertop Renewable
Waterline® CI: A Versatile & Sustainable Corrosion Inhibitor
CC — Room 31B
9:00 am – 9:45 am Exhibitor Meeting CC — Room 32AB
9:00 am – 10:30 am Education Committee Workshop
Biological Testing Methods for Cooling Water—Tests, Interpretation and Reality

Jim Lukanich, CWT
U.S. Water Services, Inc.

Bruce T. Ketrick Sr., CWT
Guardian CSC
This workshop is an educational presentation designed to explain what biological test methods are available for monitoring biological activity in water. These test methods are then reviewed so that the actual methodology, application, and proper interpretation of the test method results may be more fully understood.
CC — Room 33A–C
9:45 am – 10:00 am Break CC — Central Terrace Foyer
10:00 am – 2:00 pm Exhibit Hall Open
(Complimentary Lunch)
CC — Hall D
11:00 am – Noon

Owner's Roundtable*

AWT Benchmarking Industry Survey Results Revealed
Scott Hackworth, CPA
Industry Insights
Earlier this year, AWT conducted an industry benchmarking study, coordinated by Industry Insights. Scott Hackworth, CPA, vice president of Industry Insights, will present on the findings of the study and explain how to obtain the maximum benefit from the survey. This presentation will show how the information can be used to your advantage without needing to be a financial or statistical expert or requiring a substantial amount of analysis time. In addition, Scott will be available for ten 50-minute private one-on-one discussions to confidentially discuss a company’s performance and how they can understand and utilize the survey results. *This session is for current and future business owners only.
CC — Room 32AB
12:30 pm – 2:00 pm

Technical Learning Lounge Open

12:30 pm - 1:15 pm
Workbooks on Softeners

1:15 pm - 2:00 pm
All About Boilers
CC — Room 32AB
2:00 pm – 7:00 pm Exhibit Hall Teardown CC — Hall D
2:00 pm – 4:00 pm

Track I
Location: CC — Ballroom 20D

2:00 pm – 2:30 pm
Microbiological Control in Industrial Cooling Towers
Brian Corbin
Dow Microbial Control

Industrial water treatment programs often employ nonoxidizing biocides in conjunction with a standard oxidant to ensure a broad-based approach to microbial control. In this report, we discuss a dual biocide program and why it is considered the best defense against microorganisms in cooling towers. The overall efficacy of nonoxidizing biocides against bacteria, algae, fungi, and biofilms will be presented. Synergy between oxidizing and nonoxidizing biocides will also be discussed and treatment recommendations given. This session will also address the safety and handling of nonoxidizing biocides.

2:30 pm – 3:00 pm
The Use of Adenosine Triphosphate Test Methods to Evaluate Candidate Biofilm Dispersants
Frederick J. Passman, Ph.D., CMFS, FASTM, FSTLE
Biodeterioration Control Associates, Inc.

This session reports on the use of ASTM D4012 and a surface swab Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) to monitor and evaluate the efficacy of five candidate biofilm dispersant formulations. Heavy (>3 Log pg tATP/cm2) biofilm biomass was detected on the internal surface of PVC piping at Stage 13 of a multi-stage electrocoating system. A variety of chemical agents for removing the biofilm had been tried without success. Laboratory tests were run to evaluate candidate formulations on sections of biofilm coated PVC piping from the electrocoating system. Performance was evaluated based on D[tATP] (biofilm biomass), D[cATP] biomass in system fluid, and total suspended solids. The most promising formulation based on lab tests was evaluated in the infected system. The treatment reduced biofilm [tATP] by >3Log pg/cm2. Proportional cATP concentration increases in the fluid confirmed that the dispersant was not biocidal.

3:00 pm – 3:30 pm
A Case Study of a Blended Nonoxidizing Biocide in Three Different Industrial Water Treatment Systems
Cecilia McGough
LANXESS Corporation

This presentation will include a background of water treatment, an overview of the microbial control issues attributed to the conditions in industrial water treatment systems, the impact microbial contamination has on the operation of a water system, the common microorganisms that are developed within water treatments, and an assessment of the contribution to the microbial contamination within the unit of the different microorganisms. In addition, the presentation will touch on the following types of water systems: recirculating cooling towers, air washers, and closed systems, focusing on the recirculating cooling tower and air washers. A summary will be presented of the treatments used in each of these water systems to control the microorganisms and a review of how biocides have played a role in water treatment systems. Historical biocide programs will be summarized based on the pros and cons of each of the biocide programs, including the difference between oxidizing and nonoxidizing biocides. The presentation will also comment on the newer restrictions in Europe directed at sensitizer chemicals, leading to further restriction on the use of chemistries like isothiazolinones and glutaraldehyde. Some users are already looking to replace these products from industrial preservation in general. An alternative blended product (2-Bromo-2-Nitropropane-1,3 –diol (bronopol)and Dodecylguanidine Hydrochloride (DGH)), which will meet the new requirements, will be compared based on the individual actives, the blended product, and traditional biocide treatments. In the first stage of the biocide screening, several different compositions of biocides were evaluated in laboratory studies. The combination of the bronopol and DGH showed advantage over the currently available biocides program. In the second stage of the biocide screening, the blended product was tested in three different water treatment systems. The plant trials consist of one recirculating cooling water system in the Northeast, one air washer in the Northeast, and one air washer in the Southeast. Each facility was treated for a minimum of six weeks with the blended product. Each unit was monitored for aerobic bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and slime-forming bacteria, as well as undergoing both chemical analysis and physical inspection. The presentation will focus on the results of these three plant trials. The presentation reviews the lessons learned from introducing the blend of bronopol and DGH to each plant trial system to optimize the microbial control—providing benefits of a blended biocide approach both from reduction in cost and performance points of view.

3:30 pm – 4:00 pm
Managing Microbial Influenced Problems in the Petroleum Industry by Understanding Biocide Functionality: Type, Application, and Limitation
Cameron Campbell

The use and reuse of water in the oil and gas industry is a critical component to achieving optimal production of oil and gas. Due to the rapid movement of water, however, bacterial contamination is often overlooked or improperly treated by biocide chemistries, as the focus of these waters is solids and volume. Unfortunately, because of these oversights, many wells, reservoirs, production systems, and/or pipelines are all significantly contaminated and typically will experience prolific, microbiologically influenced problems such as reservoir souring, loss of conductivity, and microbial influenced corrosion. Many of these microbiological problems that the petroleum industry now faces could have been prevented or mitigated more effectively if there was a simple understanding of biocide functionality: type, application, and limitations. Most importantly, this knowledge, coupled with growing regulatory restrictions, which greatly impact chemical availability, makes biocide application crucial to maximize asset integrity and minimize operating costs. Understanding this biocide functionality further can bridge many industries that utilize biocides as the most dominant form of microbiological control or mitigation. Here we present data from the lab to the field demonstrating that this simple understanding of biocide functionality can have profound effects on mitigating microbiological influenced problems in a variety of petroleum systems. Ultimately, a more effective microbial control strategy will impact operating costs while reducing the technical challenges of microbial control in process waters.

Track II
Location: CC — Room 33A–C

2:00 pm – 2:30 pm
Modeling Scale Inhibitor Blends: In Search of Synergy
Robert J. Ferguson
French Creek Software, Inc.

Existing models for calculating the minimum effective dosage for scale control have been applied to industrial and oil field scale control treatment optimization since the 1970s. Standard correlations are routinely used in developing the models. The models typically apply to a single inhibitor. Studies have been conducted to determine the impact of blending inhibitors on the minimum effective dosage, and models the blends based on synergism, competitive inhibition, and equivalent efficacy. Test methods, data, and correlations are presented and discussed with respect to mechanisms.

2:30 pm – 3:00 pm
New Phosphorous–Free Corrosion Inhibitor Technology
Eric Ward
Rivertop Renewables
When chromates were banned as corrosion inhibitors for industrial cooling towers, the industry turned to phosphorus based chemistries to replace them. Unfortunately, these chemistries came with a multitude of problems, such as fouling concerns with soluble calcium, the need for additional chemistries to stabilize phosphate, a film that is slower to form and not as tenacious as chromate, and the addition of nutrients that promote bacterial growth. Now, phosphorus-based chemistries are increasingly facing both local and federal regulations to control the contamination of surface water, which is making process water more difficult and costly to discharge to municipalities or the environment. This presentation discusses a new corrosion inhibitor chemistry that provides a replacement for phosphorus-based inhibitors and all the problems and looming regulations with which they are associated. This new inhibitor forms a more durable and passive film on steel surfaces and does not pose a fouling concern with calcium. Furthermore, the new inhibitor chemistry brings more sustainable, environmentally friendly, and flexible formulation component alternatives to the water treatment industry. To demonstrate the inhibitor's performance characteristics and benefits, electrochemical techniques are presented. Additional laboratory test methods and pilot tests are included that further demonstrate the overall effectiveness and value of this new corrosion inhibitor chemistry.

3:00 pm – 3:30 pm
Novel UltraLow and NonPhosphorous Cooling Water Treatment Programs to Meet Changing Environmental Discharge Regulations
David N. Fulmer
Baker Hughes

Most cooling tower treatment programs utilize orthophosphate, polyphosphates, or other phosphorus-containing water treatment programs to mitigate corrosion. The most commonly used calcium carbonate scale inhibitors also contain phosphorus; however, the use of these corrosion and scale inhibitors is the object of federal and local regulations because of phosphorus contamination of surface water. States with some type of discharge limits for phosphorus have more than tripled since 1998. Therefore, there is a need for ultra-low and non-phosphorus treatment programs to meet these new discharge limits. This presentation details the technological development of these cooling-water treatment programs and will discuss results of extensive testing of the new ultra-low and non-phosphorus water treatment programs. It will also present the data from benchtop testing, dynamic-loop testing, and pilot cooling-tower testing as well as a field trial case history. The testing showed that the ultra-low and non-phosphorus cooling water-treatment programs work in a wide range of water conditions. These programs performed equivalent to and in many cases better than traditional phosphate programs.

3:30 pm – 4:00 pm
Stressed Alkaline Cooling Water System Deposit Control
Libardo A. Perez, Ph.D.
The Lubrizol Corporation
Reasons for using alkaline CWT programs include acid feed pH control elimination, reducing system corrosion, and feedwater quantity and/or quality limitations; however, the combination of inorganic and/or organic phosphorus (in the feedwater or CWT components) and high calcium levels in cooling system recirculation waters creates operating challenges, including mixed scales formation. This presentation examines alternative treatment programs, components, and performance for cooling water systems operating under stressed alkaline conditions.
4:00 pm – 4:15 pm Break CC — Central Terrace Foyer
4:15 pm – 5:00 pm

General Session

Interpreting Legionella Test Results: Case Studies to Illustrate Key Criteria
Matthew Freije
HC Info
Legionella test results can provide useful data for managing plumbing systems and validating a water management plan—but only if the data are reliable and interpreted correctly. By reviewing case studies for various building types, the presenter will illustrate how Legionella test results, if properly interpreted, can provide valuable information for reducing risk and managing water systems better. He will also explain crucial mistakes commonly made in interpreting the same set of results based on too few criteria.
CC — Ballroom 20D
6:30 pm – 10:30 pm AWT Annual Reception and Awards Dinner
Buses depart at 6:15 pm

This year, the Annual Reception and Awards Dinner will be held aboard the USS Midway, a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier commissioned after the end of World War II that was the largest ship in the world until 1955. In addition to learning about the carrier's history, attendees will be able to explore the more than 60 exhibits with a collection of 29 restored aircrafts. Exhibits range from the crew's sleeping quarters to a massive galley, the engine room, the ship's jail, officers' country, the post office, machine shops, and pilots' ready rooms, as well as primary flight control and the bridge high in the island over the flight deck. And, after we celebrate our annual award winners, we'll finish the evening with our very own fireworks display!

USS Midway
Time Event Location
7:00 am – 1:30 pm Registration Open Omni — Grand Ballroom Foyer
(4th Floor)
7:00 am – 8:00 am Continental Breakfast Omni — Grand Ballroom Foyer
8:00 am – 8:30 am

General Session

Advances in Legionella Testing: Methods and Interpretation
Janet E. Stout, Ph.D.
Special Pathogens Laboratory

new state Legionella testing regulations and new requirements for Legionella risk assessments for cooling towers and building water systems have some water treatment professionals testing for Legionella for the first time. This raises many questions—from proper sample collection to interpretation of results. The effects of sample collection methods and transport and test methods on Legionella test results will be presented—demonstrating how method variation between laboratories impacts results. A case study will be presented demonstrating the limitations of CDC ELITE certification. While standard Legionella culture methods remain the gold standard for Legionella detection, advances in molecular and metagenomic test methods provide new and different information. These molecular methods, along with standard culture, were used to assess seven building water systems for Legionella colonization. The two molecular methods that were compared to standard culture were PCR and metagenomic analysis. A novel combination of genetic probes yields polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results in two days for both Legionella pneumophila (any serogroup) and for L. pneumophila, serogroup 1. Metagenomics is the study of microbial DNA to investigate and survey microorganisms present in water systems. Genetic material was recovered directly from water collected from the building water systems and analyzed by using Illumina sequencing technology. Five of seven buildings tested positive for L. pneumophila. Culture and PCR gave concordant results for detection of Legionella serogroup in 93% of samples (77/83). Low-level positivity by culture (< 10 CFU/mL) was not detected by PCR for six samples. The microbiome study showed changes in microbial diversity and abundance depending on sample location (incoming cold vs. outlets). The results of this comparative analysis highlights the benefits and limitations of each methodology, including cost comparisons. In addition to the study data, helpful hints on best practices for testing and interpretation of results will be presented.

Omni — Grand Ballroom CDE
8:30 am – 9:00 am

General Session

Sampling Strategies and Test Methods for the Detection of Legionella in Potable Water Systems
Michael Coughlin, CWT
Shivi Selvaratnam, Ph.D.
Weas Engineering, Inc.
The adoption of ASHRAE 188 has resulted in the need to validate Water Management Programs (WMP) by testing the potable water for the presence of Legionella. Professional and government organizations such as the American Industrial Hygiene Association, the CDC, and OSHA provide some guidance regarding test frequency and actionable concentrations of Legionella in a WMP. Data from several studies are presented that deal with key remaining issues related to validation of a WMP and include identifying appropriate sample locations and determining the number of samples that should be tested and when PCR should be considered as an alternative test method to conventional culture techniques.
Omni — Grand Ballroom CDE
9:00 am – 9:30 am

General Session

New York Cooling Tower Regulations: Are They Enough to Prevent Cases of Legionnaires' Disease?
Diane Miskowski, MPH
EMSL Analytical Inc.

As a result of the ongoing clusters of Legionnaires' disease (LD) that have occurred in the Bronx from winter 2014 through summer 2015, both New York State and New York City have passed groundbreaking, first-of-its-kind regulations for monitoring Legionella and heterotrophic plate counts (HPC). This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory action levels, explain how these regulations will not reach the goal of preventing LD clusters, and highlight the potential problems that will be encountered when HPC are tied to a regulatory action level in conjunction with monitoring Legionella counts.

Omni — Grand Ballroom CDE
9:30 am – 9:45 am

Refreshment Break

Omni — Grand Ballroom Foyer
9:45 am – 11:45 am Track I
Location: Omni — Grand Ballroom CDE

9:45 am – 10:15 am
Beyond Laboratory Research on White Rust and Passivation
Chris Nagle

Chromate-based treatments for evaporative cooling applications were banned for environmental reasons more than 27 years ago. As the water treatment industry migrated from chromates to stabilized phosphate to alkaline treatment programs, the incidence of white rust corrosion has increased and was recently noted "as a serious and prevalent problem" by AWT membership. As noted in AWT’s 2012 Guide Paper on the subject, "Many documents dedicated to the discussion of white rust corrosion have been published over the last 10 to 15 years." A partial review of available documents on the subject suggests that the majority of the research dates to the 1990s. Much of the referenced laboratory research was conducted using corrosion coupons, galvanized panels, or other small-scale test methods with incomplete or unknown correlation to operating evaporative cooling equipment. Other documents, including technical guidance from AWT and Evapco, recommend commissioning new galvanized cooling equipment with no or minimal heat load. Customer requirements, however, do not always provide the water treatment professional with an extended period of water circulation prior to process heat load. In support of customer requests for better commissioning outcomes for new equipment commissioned with immediate heat load, Evapco initiated an in-depth study to investigate the formation and control of white rust. This study, which began over three years ago, led to the development of industry leading research equipment specifically designed to evaluate white rust formation on evaporative heat transfer surfaces. Evapco designed and built small-scale closed circuit coolers to replicate the dynamic conditions associated with evaporative cooling equipment commissioned with immediate heat load. This presentation will review test methodologies, test data, and implied outcomes realized from more than three years of controlled testing conducted using galvanized materials of construction started with immediate heat load. In addition to proprietary research, controlled testing was performed using commercially available products marketed as either white rust inhibitors or passivation aids for evaporative cooling systems containing galvanized materials of construction. Evapco has conducted additional research focused on innovative pre-treatment technologies for the galvanized coils utilized in closed circuit coolers and evaporative condensers. The studied pre-treatment technologies are designed to minimize white rust formation across all makeup water qualities and water treatment formulations.

10:15 am – 10:45 am
Understanding Options for Your Analytical Sensors
Lori McPherson
Walchem, IWAKI America, Inc.
Contacting Conductivity Sensors are the standard analytical measurement technology, but these require the ability to conduct electricity between two electrodes on the sensor. These can fail to measure if there are oils or other material present that can coat the electrode. The Electrodeless, or Torroidal, method of conductivity measurement is a preferred technology in these applications and can successfully read through a coating. The technology is more expensive, but can provide better reliability in difficult applications. This presentation will review the two technologies to enable the user to choose the best sensor for their application. pH measurement is typically done with a low-cost, replaceable, conventional electrode that utilizes a silver/silver chloride reference. This electrode technology is a good general purpose design but suffers from shorter life in many applications. These applications include solutions of high oxidizer (i.e., chlorine or chlorine dioxide), high temperatures, or pH extremes. A differential electrode utilizes a second glass electrode as a reference, with an inexpensive field replaceable salt bridge/electrolyte solution. The differential electrode design has been the standard in wastewater applications but can also provide benefits to some cooling tower applications. This presentation will review the construction of the two types of pH electrode design and why the differential electrode may be a better choice in some applications. ORP has been the primary measurement for monitoring chlorine or chlorine dioxide in cooling towers and has the advantage of being low cost and relatively low maintenance. Amperometric oxidizer measurement has become more popular in recent years and has the advantage of providing an actual ppm measurement instead of indicating the overall oxidizing capability. This presentation will review the differences in sensor design and installation/maintenance requirements for the two different measurement technologies. Finally, many sensor technologies offer an option for ATC—"Automatic Temperature Compensation." This presentation will review how temperature affects the different analytical measurements (conductivity, pH, ORP, free chlorine), how the measurement is adjusted (compensated), and when you should use, or don't need, to utilize ATC.

10:45 am – 11:15 am
Optimizing a Boiler Makeup System using Closed Circuit Reverse Osmosis for the Lowest Cost of Ownership
Matthew Jones, P.E.

A new semi-batch or closed-circuit reverse osmosis (RO) process has emerged, combining batch operation with cross flow and providing high recovery rates without excess concentration polarization. In addition, the process allows for independently adjustable flux and cross-flow and resistance to, and even reversal of, fouling and scaling. High recovery operation reduces waste concentrate/brine production and maximizes valuable water resources in drought-stressed regions and water purification at locations where liquid waste disposal is expensive or difficult. These features are particularly beneficial for inland desalination and wastewater concentration and water reuse applications. This presentation provides a general overview of water utilization within a power generation facility, specifically focused on the ultrapure water system, which provides makeup water to the boilers and turbines. The presentation discusses system design details, pilot study results, and performance optimization information for a boiler makeup system at a peaking power plant in Southern California. A final assessment is conducted of the cost of ownership that compares semi-batch RO to traditional RO at a variety of operating points.

11:15 am – 11:45 am
Recent Advances in Filming Corrosion Inhibitor Technology for Steam Boilers
Richard C. Kritchen
Richard Salazar
GE Water & Process Technologies
Surface adsorption, or filming corrosion inhibitors, have been applied for corrosion control in boiler steam-condensate systems for many years. Older technology, most notably filming amine inhibitors such as octadecylamine (ODA), find limited applicability in modern steam boilers for several reasons. First, these older materials are often difficult to feed and often require labor-intensive, manual dilution procedures. In addition, if overfed and/or subject to significant hardness or iron contamination, this older technology could form troublesome deposits on steam path equipment, and in the boiler. Newer amine and non-amine surface adsorption corrosion inhibitors have addressed many of these issues and limitations. One new adsorption inhibitor class, often referred to as "polyamines," exhibits excellent volatility and system coverage, very low potential for fouling, is suitable for neat feed, and provides significant protection against both dissolved oxygen and downtime corrosion. This class of inhibitors is most frequently applied in combination with volatile neutralizing amines for optimum performance. Another newer class of surface adsorption inhibitors is designed for applications where steam contacts food, or where volatile amines are not permitted or desired, including organic food production. These inhibitors are not amine-based materials and are proving to be effective options in many applications where amines are not a viable solution. In addition to discussing the chemistry and practical application of these newer classes of surface corrosion inhibitors, performance data from several applications will be reviewed.

Track II
Location: Omni — Grand Ballroom AB

9:15 am – 10:15 am
Bacteria Enumeration: Field Data and Comparison of Testing Methods
Amanda Meitz
Biosolutions, LLC
Walter Tyler, CWT
Arthur Freedman Associates, Inc.

Field tests for heterotrophic aerobic bacteria include dip slides, ATP, catalase, and some selective media methods. Nonselective bacteria media grow a variety of bacteria and include tryptic soy agar, R2A agar, and heterotrophic plate count agar. Selective media may employ media components and conditions that select for particular bacteria, such as sulfate-reducing bacteria or acid-producing bacteria. Available laboratory tests include multiple selective and nonselective media. Field data from cooling tower or closed-loop systems using more than one field test method and lab methods will be presented. Comparisons of media and explanations of enzymatic tests will be provided. Possible explanations for discrepancies between methods will be discussed.

10:45 am – 11:15 am
Challenges in Cooling Water Systems and How to Solve Them—An International Perspective
Jeorg-Tilman Heyl
Heyl Brothers North America L.P.
In an open cooling system, a portion of coolant water evaporates periodically. This results in the constant increase of salt concentration in the process water. The increased salinity and mineral content of the circulating water leads to calcification and corrosion in the cooling tower and water mains. Furthermore, problems such as algae formation and dust particle outbreaks have increased the awareness of water treatment and cooling tower regulations. The two main challenges that regulations need to support are the decrease of water use and the increase in energy efficiency. Wherever a heating or cooling process through water takes place, parameters such as water hardness, conductivity, bromine, phosphate, and alkalinity are important to monitor. Manual tests every other day are acceptable for noncritical water systems. The cooling water systems of a data center or a nuclear power plant or the process water for the production of chemicals are critical, however. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, most regions in the United States are affected by hard water. Shutting down for repair and maintenance because lime scale caused corrosion on the surfaces? Very expensive. How can these facilities save energy as well as operational costs and increase accuracy in water-related data? Automation, now called the "Internet of Things," is the key. The objective of this presentation is to give an overview of trends, challenges, and regulations for water in cooling towers in comparison to German/European regulations. The Association of German Engineers has published numerous papers and guidelines (mostly in German) that have been implemented successfully in past years. Before reinventing the wheel, we would like to summarize and compare what can be helpful for plant operators in the United States. This presentation will further explain how automated water quality monitoring devices with wireless data transfer to mobile devices will decrease operational costs and increase energy efficiency.

10:45 am – 11:15 am
Chlorine Dioxide for Control and Prevention of Biofilm and Legionella
Tom McWhorter
CDG Environmental, LLC

Legionnaires' disease (legionellosis) has been described as "the most significant waterborne-disease risk associated with drinking water in the United States." Legionellosis is caused by Legionella, bacteria that often proliferate in biofilm that grows on the inner surfaces of water systems. Legionella can grow in water temperatures up to 140° or higher. Therefore, they are especially problematic in recirculating systems such as cooling towers, ornamental fountains, and hot water systems in hospitals, hotels, nursing homes, and other institutions. Biofilm is a layer of bacteria, protozoa, algae, and other organisms in a matrix of polysaccharide “glue” secreted by bacteria. The biofilm binds the organisms together and protects them from most biocides. As biofilm grows thicker, pieces of the biofilm slough off and are carried away by the stream of water. Legionella sometimes infect protozoa in the biofilm and are carried out of the biofilm in the bodies of the protozoa, which then die and release Legionella into the water stream. Humans usually contract legionellosis by breathing aerosols from showers and other bathroom fixtures or by breathing aerosols from a cooling tower or fountain. Planktonic (free floating without the protection of biofilm or protozoa) Legionella can be killed by chlorine dioxide or other biocides; however, without control of the biofilm, Legionella cannot be effectively controlled as a threat to people exposed to mists or aerosols that contain protozoa from the biofilm or bits of the biofilm itself. Since it exists as a dissolved gas, chlorine dioxide has the unique ability to permeate throughout the biofilm and kill the associated organisms. Chlorine dioxide can be usedintermittenly to treat water systems to control, destroy, and prevent biofilm formation and therefore control the release of Legionella into the water. This enables a uniquely effective and economical technique for using chlorine dioxide to control Legionella. To treat a water system with existing biofilm, an initial application of chlorine dioxide at 10-50 ppm for one to three hours will usually destroy the existing biofilm, which can then be removed by flushing the system with clean water. After the initial flush, chlorine dioxide can be added to the system at intervals anywhere from twice per day to every other day to maintain a residual of 0.1-0.5 ppm for one to three hours at the most remote part of the system. It is essential to review the water system and eliminate any dead legs or untreated zones during disinfection treatments. Every system is different, so it is important to try an approach, measure the results, and adjust dose and duration of the treatment accordingly. Intermittent dosing with chlorine dioxide is difficult if the chlorine dioxide is supplied by a generator that requires adjustment at startup and shutdown; however, ready-to-use chlorine dioxide solutions and generator systems that require no adjustment at startup are available.

11:15 am – 11:45 am
Combining Onsite Rapid Testing and Connectivity Through a Smartphone Reader Application for Better Management of Legionella Risk
Graham R. Tyrie
Albagaia Ltd.
The Hydrosense Legionella rapid field test utilizes lateral flow technology to provide presence/absence of Legionella antigen at a specific analytical sensitivity in 25 minutes, much like some common point-of-care medical tests. The test detects all 10 recognized subtypes of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (LpSG1), which accounts for the majority of reported Legionnaires' disease cases. The analytical specificity and diagnostic sensitivity have been experimentally determined by independent organizations. Using filtration to concentrate the sample, the test detects LpSG1 concentrations as low as 100 cells per litre and is unaffected by other common bacteria at typical concentrations. The robustness to a range of environmental conditions and water treatment chemistries has been investigated, and the technology has been well proven for several years. Most Legionella control regulations insist on the importance of keeping a record of the assessment and precautionary measures and treatments related to the Legionella bacteria control. The computing power of smartphones has been harnessed to read the test to provide a semiquantitative result online. An intensity ratio based on the relative optical density of the control and result measurements is used to compare experienced visual interpretation of controlled analyte dilutions with test results, returned by a smartphone reader. These results show that the smartphone reader can interpret results better than an experienced test user, and therefore, this tool can be very useful at enhancing recovery rates. Most importantly, the link provided by the smartphone connectivity through the data portal makes possible for the first time real-time data recording and, through triggered alerts, real-time water system management. The data portal represents a new tool for monitoring and controlling the presence of Legionella bacterium, helping those responsible to meet their regulatory and legal requirements. It is possible to send the results of Legionella, temperature, and biocide from the smartphone to a central server. The portal also records location, time, and date and provides scheduling and alerts and notifications of positive results or out of specification temperatures and biocide levels. The portal is intuitive and simple to use, and it is possible to add many users and locations in one account as required.
11:45 am – Noon Refreshment Break Omni — Grand Ballroom Foyer
Noon – 1:00 pm Track I
Location: Omni — Grand Ballroom CDE

Noon – 12:30 pm
The Treatment of Spent Metal Working Fluids
Kevin R. Cope
Brenntag North America
Oily wastewater can come from many applications: food plants, refineries, diesel repair houses, and many others. One of the most difficult types of oily wastes to resolve or "break" is spent metal working fluids. These metal working applications include rolling, drawing, shaping, machining, drilling, cutting, tapping, milling, and grinding. Metal working fluids, also known as coolants, drawing compounds, cutting fluids, rolling oils, and other industry-related names are a blend of natural oils, synthetic oils, surfactants, and/or other components that are used in metal working applications to lubricate and cool the metal. These fluids are used in many different metal applications, with the most common being steel and aluminum. Metal working fluids are mixed with water prior to use, creating a very stable emulsion. These emulsified fluids serve to lubricate the metal, quickly remove heat from the metal working function, and disperse the heat within the fluid mix. The fluid in this emulsion lubricates and quickly removes heat, while the water's function is to disperse this heat throughout the fluid. Fluid manufacturers strive to produce metal working fluids that are stable and long lasting under severe working conditions. Metal working fluid manufacturers produce better, more stable, longer-lasting fluids. The emulsions they create are more difficult to resolve or "break" but eventually do begin to break down or become contaminated. Trap oils from process leaks or product breakdown, metal particles from the application, factory dirt, biological activity on the fluid, and/or the loss of lubricity will require the fluid to be wasted. One goal of waste treatment is to reduce disposal costs. Treatment of spent metal working fluids requires the oil and water to be separated, reducing the amount of oily waste for discharge. A successful "break" of a spent metal working fluid can yield clean water, suitable for disposal at a much lower cost, and an oil layer that can be treated and possibly be reused. An early form of treatment was the Windsor Process, and it is still used today. The Windsor Process utilizes sulfuric acid, aluminum sulfate, calcium chloride, or sodium hydroxide and, in some cases, an anionic flocculent to break spent automotive metal working fluids. This process can be effective; however, as fluid manufacturers produce better products, it is becoming more difficult to break these emulsions. Any all-inorganic treatment program produces a treated oil layer containing additional solids that can cause problems with reuse or re-refining. This presentation will focus on the use of a dual cationic coagulant program. The use of two cationic coagulants can yield results far superior to the Windsor Process or any all-inorganic treatment program. Understanding the coagulant chemistries, developing the skills needed for testing, and making the test results applicable in plant operations will be presented.

12:30 pm – 1:00 pm
Managing Chemistry to Mitigate Flow Accelerated Corrosion
Michael Kuo
Swan Analytical USA
Flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) is a corrosion mechanism that increases operating and maintenance costs, impacts unit reliability, and most importantly, can be a safety concern. Cycle chemistry must be customized for each unit to address its unique design and operating issues. This requires representative sampling, accurate and reliable continuous monitoring, and meticulous control of the chemistry to minimize and hopefully mitigate FAC. Many factors in today's environment impact unit operations and chemistry control. Requirements for increased operational flexibility call for sampling systems that can cope with start-stop or load following operation with minimal operator intervention. A shortage of qualified chemical staff leads to drastically reduced staffing levels in power plants; many sites, especially smaller units, cannot afford a chemist on all shifts. As a result, reliable online measurements and diagnostic systems become more important. Thermal power plants using renewable fuels are on the rise. They tend to be smaller decentralized stations (e.g., biomass, waste to energy, thermo-solar units with typical capacities <100MW). Many plants struggle with the implications on the water chemistry management. As a result, water chemistry operations are neglected and continuous monitoring is no longer assured. In the long term, accumulated damage to the equipment and loss of generation capacity will occur. Practical examples from different power plants show good practice and typical pitfalls. References are made to the recommendations in the new VGB Guidelines (VGB R450L / VGB-S-010-2011, VGB-S-006-2012-DE), EPRI Cycle Chemistry Guidelines, and IAPWS Chemistry Guidelines for water chemistry, and for online sampling and analysis in the water steam cycle. This presentation illustrates the value of proper sampling, monitoring, and data validation to identify chemistry issues, allowing the chemist to optimize the chemistry and chemistry control.

Track II
Location: Omni — Grand Ballroom AB

Noon – 12:30 pm
Extending Performance: A New Product for Treatment in "No Man's Land"
Mike Standish
Radical Polymers
Today's cooling water treatment approaches have been separated into three strata that are largely defined by calcium carbonate saturation of a given process water application. At one end of the spectrum are applications where low LSI waters are observed. In these applications, it is typical for a water treatment service company to have a standard "Low LSI Formula," where effective treatment is accomplished via the use of low molecular weight polyacrylates and common phosphonates such as HEDP. At the other end of the spectrum, where calcium carbonate saturation levels exceed 150X, water treatment service companies develop "High LSI Formulas," where aggressive dosages of polymaleic acids and PBTC are almost ubiquitously employed. The issue is what to do with the middle strata, or "No Man's Land," which is a quite large number of applications where neither the "Low LSI Formula" or the "High LSI Formula" are appropriate. In such applications, polyacrylates and HEDP begin to lose efficacy due to stability loss and/or a driving force for precipitation that exceeds the functionality of the additives. Similarly, these types of waters can be inappropriate for treatment with a "High LSI Formula" containing polymaleic acid and PBTC due to mismatched functionality and/or use cost issues. In these applications, water treatment companies tend to try to either increase the dosage of the "Low LSI Formula" or modify or decrease the application of the "High LSI Formula." Risk of treatment failure is significant using either approach. A new polymer has been developed to overcome this issue of treating this significant portion of water treatment applications that fall into the middle strata. The new polymer maintains exceptional performance relative to polyacrylates in low LSI waters and provides extended stability and functionality throughout the areas where polyacrylates tend to fail. This new technology has exceptional stability with regard to hardness ions, dissolved salts, and transition metals such as iron. The polymer can extend the functionality of HEDP and is designed to be a highly effective particulate dispersant. Data presented will show the polymer to be an outstanding choice for the water treatment professional who desires to eliminate the "No Man's Land" void in their current product formulas.

12:30 pm – 1:00 pm
Improved Clarification Process in Cooling Water Treatment by Efficient Polymer Mixing
Yong Kim, Ph.D.
UGSI Solutions, Inc.

To maintain the zero liquid discharge policy at cooling tower water treatment, polymeric flocculants have been used along with other chemicals in reactor-type clarifiers. The efficiency of polymer introduced to this process strongly depends on the degree of its activation prior to being injected. This presentation illustrates how to prepare more efficient polymer solutions based on the knowledge of fluid dynamics and polymer chemistry. It includes an extensive review of papers on the relevant subject. Results of various laboratory testing are followed regarding the effect of dilution water chemistry and different mixing technologies on the effectiveness of a polymer solution. Unlike other chemicals used in water and wastewater industries, polymer has a unique long-chain molecular structure, which requires a very different approach in designing mixing equipment. While higher molecular weight is required to achieve more efficient flocculation, it also presents technical challenges in the preparation of polymer solutions. The benefit of utilizing two-stage mixing—very high initial mixing energy followed by low and uniform mixing energy—is demonstrated by theoretical considerations as well as experimental data. Since it is becoming a common practice to use treated effluent from wastewater stream for polymer mixing, the effect of residual chlorine or oxidant on polymer efficiency is also discussed.

Time Event Location
8:00 am – 4:00 pm Board of Directors' Meeting Omni — Boardroom 1
(6th Floor)

AWT 2016 Convention and Exposition

The AWT Annual Convention and Exposition is the place to get the tools, skills, and connections that will have an immediate effect on the future direction of your business—and impact your bottom line.

Association of Water Technologies
1300 Piccard Drive, #LL-14
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone: (301) 740-1421
Fax: (301) 990-9771